Sanitary and phytosanitary measures: International Trade Rules

Although it has been difficult to assess the aggregate effects of SPS regulations on trade in agricultural goods, or to evaluate their relative importance in theworld trading system. . .

Sanitary and phytosanitary measures: Measurement of Economic Effects

Although traditional trade barriers have been extensively studied, informing policy trade-offs and negotiating priorities in theUruguay andDoha trade rounds. . .

Sanitary and phytosanitary measures

Since the 1990s, attention to agricultural trade policy has widened to include issues related to technical barriers to trade. . .

Sanctions: Empirical Findings on Sanctions

Many studies have attempted to identify the correlates of sanctions success.

Sanctions: Economic and Political Effects of Sanctions

Both the sanctioning nation(s) and the target nation are, in general, made worse off by a trade embargo.


International economic sanctions are often favored by nation-states and by international organizations as a means of projecting power or influencing another government’s. . .

Safeguards: Legal Issues

If safeguards have any useful role to play in the trading system, their ability to play that role going forward is in some jeopardy.

Safeguards: The Economic Function of Safeguards

The standard economic case for free trade counsels against the use of safeguards.

Safeguards: The Legal Foundation for Safeguards and Its Evolution in the WTO

GATT Article XIX(1) provides. . .


The term safeguards refers to trade intervention by national governments to address the injurious effects of import surges on import-competing industries.

Rules of origin: Effects of ROOs

Although it is tempting to think of ROOs as necessary bureaucratic nuisances, they are often far more.

Rules of origin: Defining ROOs

There are four common criteria for defining rules of origin.

Rules of origin

Rules of origin (ROOs) specify the conditions under which a good is deemed to originate from a country and hence is eligible for preferential treatment.

Ricardian model: The Role of the Ricardian Model in Understanding the World Economy

TheRicardianmodel was introduced long ago to explain one of the most basic concepts of economics, comparative advantage. . .

Ricardian model: Extensions of the Simple Ricardian Model

Before considering several extensions of the simple model described here, it is reasonable to ask what extensions would not be acceptable. . .

Ricardian model: The Simple Ricardian Model

The simple Ricardian model depicts a world of two countries, A and B, each using a single factor of production, labor L, to produce two goods, X and Y.

Ricardian model

The Ricardian model is the simplest and most basic general equilibriummodel of international trade that we have.

World economics articles