Sovereign wealth funds

Many capital-exporting developing countries look for systematic ways of raising returns on their international currency reserves on a long-term basis by creating sovereign wealth funds (SWFs). . .

Smuggling: Smuggling and Legitimate Economic Actors

The role in smuggling of legitimate economic actors remains obscure. Legitimate importers and distributors are put at a cost disadvantage when required to compete with contraband.

Smuggling: Recent Trends in Smuggling

Prior to trade liberalization at the end of the 20th century, most developing countries placed significant tariffs on imports to protect local industries. . .


Smuggling is the surreptitious import or export of goods in violation of domestic or international law.

Shipping: Regulating Shipping Markets

Institutionally, long-standing debates have focused on the appropriate economic regulation of shipping to ensure that overall logistics chains are not distorted. . .

Shipping: Economics of the Industry

The industry directly interacts with ports, canals, and navigation systems and less directly with the operational surface modes (road, rail, and inland waterways) that service ports.

Shipping: Structure of the Shipping Industry

The shipping industry is segmented in a number of ways.The largest part of the industry involves themovement of cargo, withmore limited transportation of people by ferries and cruise ships. 


Shipping, themovement of people and commodities by ship, has long been the dominant form of transportation for the movement of bulk commodities, especially over long distances.

Sequencing of financial sector reform: Key Policy Insights

As countries reform their financial systems, it is essential that they have instruments that allow them to exercise effective monetary control in a liberalized environment.

Sequencing of financial sector reform: Policy Issues Surrounding Sequencing

The earliest literature on sequencing financial sector reformaddressed the reformof financial systems as part of broader programs of economic reform that included. . .

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