International aid and political economy

International donors provided more than U.S. $2.4 trillion in the formof foreign aid from 1960 to 2004.

International aid

International aid, or official development assistance (ODA), comprises a wide range of financial and nonfinancial components.

Humanitarian aid

Humanitarian aid is assistance provided directly to people affected by conflict or disasters.

Food aid

Food aid is a resource provided on concessionary terms in the formof, or for the provision of, food.

Bilateral aid

Bilateral aid is official development assistance that flows directly froma donor country government to a recipient country.


Agriculture is the systematic raising of plants and animals for the purpose of producing food, feed, fiber, and other outputs.

Agricultural trade negotiations

Opening up markets for agricultural products has proved a stumbling block for trade negotiations at both the regional and the multilateral levels.

Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)

The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) has become the most important and far-reaching international accord in the field of intellectual property.

Agreement on Agriculture

The Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA) came into effect in 1995 as a part of the Marrakesh Agreement that established the World Trade Organization (WTO).

Agglomeration and foreign direct investment

The spatial clustering of foreign direct investment (FDI) is clearly visible in the location of multinationals investing in the United States, the European Union, China, and other regions.

African Union

Open to all countries in the African continent, the African Union (AU) is an organization designed to foster political and economic cooperation and development among its member countries.

African Caribbean Pacific–European Union (ACP-EU) partnership agreements

The trade and development relationship between the European Union (EU) and the African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) countries has been shaped by a number of formal treaties and agreements since the end of World War II.

Access to medicines

The termaccess to medicines encompasses the array of problems faced by the world’s lowest-income inhabitants, who often cannot afford, or do not have access to, medications that could greatly reduce the disease burden under which they suffer.

Absolute advantage

A country is said to have an absolute advantage over another country in the production of a good or service if it can produce that good or service (the "output") using fewer real resources (like capital or labor, the "inputs").

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