Proximity-concentration hypothesis: Policy Implications

The proximity-concentration hypothesis provides explanations for FDI between countries with very similar factor proportions, cross-border multiplant configurations. . .

Proximity-concentration hypothesis: Empirical Validation

In empirical tests of the proximity-concentration hypothesis, we expect to find the share of affiliate sales in total foreign sales to be positively related to distance/trade costs. . .

Proximity-concentration hypothesis: Theoretical Framework

Afirm has several modes of servicing an overseas market: exports, FDI, or licensing. In deciding on its overseas expansion strategy. . .

Proximity-concentration hypothesis

The proximity-concentration hypothesis or trade-off is a way to explain why firms undertake horizontal foreign direct investment (FDI). . .

Primary products trade: Limited Dynamic Benefits for Primary Product Exporters

While advocates of comparative advantage trade predict that dynamic benefitswill accrue to any country, regardless of the specific products they export. . .

Primary products trade: Dynamic Trade Benefits

Beyond these issues regarding the static gains fromtrade, perhaps of even greater significance for the developing countries is the effect of primary product specialization and trade. . .

Primary products trade: Distribution of Gains from Trade

Another element of the critique of primary product exports is the question of the distribution of any gains within the producing country.

Primary products trade: Agricultural Subsidies and Developed-Country Trade Barriers

What is not subject to debate is the effect that agricultural subsidies have had on global prices for many products.

Primary products trade: Prebisch-Singer Critique

The Heckscher-Ohlin model and its variants, generally referred to as the neoclassical trade model, showed that every country gains from comparative advantage trade. . .

Primary products trade: Classical and Neoclassical Trade Theory

Classical economists were the first to systematically addresswhether primary exports were good forwelfare, which they answered in the affirmative.

Primary products trade

Primary products are unprocessed raw materials. They include agricultural, forestry, fishing, and mining products, including minerals and fuels.

Poverty, global: Future Poverty Trends

Analysis of likely future trends shows a continuation of the patterns discussed here. . .

Poverty, global: Strategies to Tackle Global Poverty

Two broad approaches may be identified in the dominant discourses on development.

Poverty, global: Globalization of Poverty

The globalization of poverty is the view that we are today affected by the poverty of those in other nations in ways we were not in the past.

Poverty, global: Patterns of Poverty

Estimates of dollar-a-day poverty are calculated only for the developing world. The proportion of absolutely poor in developed countries by thismeasure is nil or negligible.

Poverty, global

The most commonly used definition of poverty is a lack of income; more specifically, having an income below an amount (the poverty line). . .

Pollution haven hypothesis: Natural Capital and Pollution Havens

The effects of environmental policy on natural capital can be critically important for trade patterns. Consider the example of fisheries (where the fishstock isnatural capital).

World economics articles